Zip-lines and the Law

April 13, 2011

accident, contract, Negligence

Sports Litigation Alert (Volume 8 Issue 6) just published an article I wrote entitled, ‘Family Alleges Negligence after Man Dies on Zip-line’ which is about a zip-line lawsuit launched in the United States and another zip-line case just decided in Canada. Here are a few excerpts:


A lawsuit was recently filed in the United States District Court, District of Utah — Central Division, by the estate of a man who died while zip-lining. The complaint alleges in Hoagland et al. v. Rockin’ R Ranch & Lodge Guest Operations Inc. et al. that on Aug. 11, 2008, at the Rockin’ R Ranch in Piute County Utah, Daniel A. Hoagland, M.D., dutifully followed the instructions given him, climbed the zip-line tower, held on to the strap which connected the stick to the zip-line, sat on the stick and left the tower. The strap immediately snapped causing Dr. Hoagland to fall resulting in his death. The complaint describes the strap as narrow, weathered and worn-out.

The lawsuit alleges negligence or, in the alternative, gross negligence, which the complaint describes as conduct that is willful, intentional or reckless, causing Hoagland’s death. The complaint lists 15 separate alleged breaches of duty. The two most salient allegations relate to failure to maintain a safe zip-line and failure to secure participants to the zip-line via a harness and lanyard.

The defense will likely rely upon the doctrine of inherent risk and that the plaintiff signed a waiver and release of liability. U.S. courts have dismissed similar claims under the doctrine of primary assumption of risk such that — for example — if falling is an inherent risk of climbing and if the plaintiff fell while climbing, then the eventuation of that risk is something to which the plaintiff accepted.

Coincidentally, in another zip-line case, a Canadian court in Loychuk v. Cougar Mountain Adventures Ltd. (2011 BCSC 193) ruled last month that the waiver signed was binding, thus barring the plaintiff’s recovery. The defendants conceded negligence in the communication breakdown which gave rise to the high-speed collision on the zip-line between the two plaintiffs, so the only substantive issue facing the Supreme Court of British Columbia was whether the waiver of liability and assumption of risks agreement was valid.

Among other claims, the plaintiffs argued that the defendant misrepresented the terms of the waiver, that it was obtained without past consideration, and that it was unconscionable. The plaintiffs had considerable experience and exposure to waivers; one plaintiff had just finished law school and the other was an owner of a fitness business which required its clients to sign a waiver and assumption of risks agreement.

The court disagreed with the plaintiff’s claims and found that the waiver was enforceable; that there was no evidence of duress, coercion or unfair advantage; and that the plaintiffs were given notice as evidenced in the defendant’s website which discloses that guests were required to sign a waiver of liability, and that the wavier was not unconscionable.


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